There are many advantages to using a single component, non- ionic viscoelastic surfactant gel (VES) for sand control and stimulation applications. The VES is highly compatible with a wide range of completion brines and crude oils, is virtually non-damaging to the formation and demonstrates shale- stabilizing characteristics with many types of shale. Another advantage of having a single additive VES system is that it requires a small equipment footprint. With this combination of compact equipment set-up and simplified fluid mixing, complex, high rate, high sand concentration frac jobs are possible where rig space is limited or equipment is limited because of the remote location from full stimulation service. A treatment using a single additive system can typically be performed with only one or two frac pumps, a frac blender, proppant silo or a modified sand infuser and data acquisition equipment.

Many offshore facilities have commingled gathering systems many of which must be treated for emulsions with chemicals. This treatment process may be substantially reduced or simplified when a non-ionic VES fluid is used for stimulation compared to a crosslinked gel fluid. The high compatibility with completion brines and crude oils, coupled with the non- damaging nature of the VES itself, reduces the likelihood of formation damage in the well. The VES promotes a fast and more thorough recovery of the stimulation fluid from the formation and if emulsions are generated, it will allow for easier treatment in the surface facility.

Since December 2000, non-ionic VES gels have been used in over 30 applications in the Adriatic Sea and in the Gulf of Mexico in brines ranging from seawater with varying amounts of KCl to 10.5 ppg CaCl2. Each application has resulted in enhanced production due to the excellent performance of the fluid. Clean-up rates have been directly related to bottom hole pressure, and have not been complicated with typical clean-up problems such as clay swelling, water blocks, and filter cake plugging of proppant packs. This type of treatment with a minimum equipment set-up has made high rate/volume frac treatments possible without the need of a stimulation vessel.

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