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Abstract

As a result of marine disasters in the Offshore Petroleum Industry, there has been an increased Petroleum Industry, there has been an increased emphasis on the training of marine safety. The U.S. Coast Guard has proposed licensing requirements for the Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) that will mandate training i the enclose lifeboat (covered powered survival craft) and survival suits. An powered survival craft) and survival suits. An analysis will be made of the traditional training currently implemented, international standards of training, recently proposed Coast Guard required training, and how to determine task analysis for this type of training. We will look at methods of validating objectives and training alon with the practicality of hands on training with actual practicality of hands on training with actual equipment in the work environment versus simulation. The relationship of formal training and the currently required drills will be discussed and how they can effectively complement each other. The methods of research included historical evidence, behavioral studies into training, current recognized standards of training, and field surveys. Also, a case study using a pre-test, and a random selected subgroup for a performance re-test will be analyzed. The study performance re-test will be analyzed. The study identifies needed training and concludes that the emphasized principle of instruction should be: a simple presentation; the concentration on fundamentals; the minimization of lecture; and the provision of hands-on practice. Safety limitations provision of hands-on practice. Safety limitations will dictate ho realistic any training can approximate the actual tasks and conditions to test the students skills. A combination of actual and simulated hands-on exercise along with classroom instruction will optimize the learning procedure. For maximum retention formal training should be reinforced with regularly scheduled drills and instruction at the work site. Feedback is the key to analyzing the effectiveness of the training.

Introduction

As the Petroleum Industry gradually expanded their operations fro land to the offshore environment, there became a need for new skills to work in the marine atmosphere. The U.S. Coast Guard looked at Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) as vessels and required a number of lifeboatmen be on board as they do with any sea going vessel.

The traditional training for a lifeboatman in the marine industry is to gain a number of years experience at sea, demonstrate his ability to operate an oar-propelled lifeboat an take a written examination. This testing process is supplemented by weekly drills on the vessel to reinforce the crews skills. The unique operation and hazards associated with the Offshore Petroleum Industry has led to the use of the covered powered survival craft which looks quite alien to the traditional lifeboat still seen on ocean going commercial vessels.

Historically disasters have proceeded any change in the marine industry. No one thought of requiring a vessel to maintain sufficient lifeboat capacity for all people on board passenger ships until the Titanic sank. Unfortunately, the Offshore Petroleum Industry has had its share of disasters which has caused us to reevaluate our training.

The U.S. Coast Guard's marine casualty report for the Ocean Express (1976) concluded that: "Training and drills pertaining to abandonment of the Ocean Express and the use of lifesaving appliances and equipment were inadequate. This resulted in the crew being unfamiliar with the operation of lifesaving equipment, emergency procedures and lack of knowledge as to the availability of certain emergency equipment within the capsule."

Years later, a Marine Board again came to the same conclusion about the lack of training of offshore installations. In the marine casualty report for the Ocean Ranger (USCG 1983), the Board concluded that:

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