Coiled tubing (CT) is widely used in well intervention as a practical and cost-effective means of servicing wells. Since CT's inception, the actual flow through CT has been a point of discussion and theory. Testing has been conducted to study what happens inside the CT. In recent years, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software has provided greater insight into actual CT flow patterns, including fluid-flow velocity profiles and secondary flow regimes. CFD helps to understand the fluid-flow phenomenon, which can lead to effective designs of friction-loss gradients. CFD has proven to be an effective alternative to full-scale testing.

The next development was modeling of actual field data from a fracturing service. This method compares predicted values, actual values, and computed values from the CFD solutions. CFD was used to provide correlations for the predictive model without full-scale testing, which greatly reduced the cost of development. Fluids investigated have included slurry pumped from an actual job.

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