Abrasive fluids have been applied in mechanical cutting and perforating systems for years, the result is a precise cut in any size tubular. In abrasive perforating, the entry hole created reveals no tubular deformation or presence of flow obstructing debris. Consequently, the sand-laden fluid moves past cement, damaged zone or filter cake and into virgin formation. At that instant, velocity generated through the nozzles propagates abrasive fluid into multiple reservoir layers creating numerous pathways. Optimizing the direction of perforations allows for cost effective stimulation through conventional fracturing techniques. Therefore, as an alternative to conventional perforating, oriented abrasive perforating is applied specifically for creating channels to natural fractures.

This paper discusses the development of abrasive perforating coupled with orienting technology for penetrating tubing, casing, drill collars, and drill pipe, all of which is deployed using coiled tubing or jointed pipe in re-completions. In addition to conventional coiled tubing tools, this system utilizes an engineered weight bar connected to a high velocity perforating sub.

This paper begins with the development of this technology and existing perforating methods, then a description of tests conducted with the abrasive perforator and subsequent results. Benefits and applications with applied case histories are also discussed including multiple stage plug setting and perforating as well as pipe recovery, followed by conclusions and recommendations.

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