Running a fine grid model with 107 - 109 of cells is possible using a supercomputer with 103 - 106 of CPUs but may not be always cost-effective. The most cost-effective way is to use a coarse grid model that is much smaller but with static/dynamic profiles very close to the fine grid model. This paper proposes a new layer optimization and upscaling method with the aim for creating a consistent coarse grid model. Unlike the industry's existing layer optimization and upscaling methods, the proposed method performs layer optimization and upscaling fully integrated with the Lorenz coefficient and curves (LCC). Coarse grid layers and their permeabilities are created by minimizing the difference between fine and coarse grid LCCs. The process consists of static and dynamic optimizations. The former is measured by LCC while the latter by pressure, GOR, and water-cut. A new LCC-based permeability upscaling method is developed to preserve the fine grid multiphase flow behaviors. A satisfactory coarse grid model is achieved when both static and dynamic criteria are met. The proposed method has been successfully applied to a giant carbonate oil field in the Caspian Sea that consists of a matrix dominated platform and a fracture/karst dominated rim. Due to the field's complex geology and high H2S content (15%), a dual porosity, dual permeability compositional model has been created to model compositional sour crude flow within and between the matrix and fracture/karst features. The reservoir drive mechanisms are fluid expansion, miscible gas injection and aquifer drive. The reservoir is undersaturated and has an abnormally high initial reservoir pressure. The fine-grid static model contains 104 million cells (370×225×625×2) and the optimized upscaled coarse-grid dynamic model has 8.3 million cells (370×225×50×2). The upscaled model can be run efficiently on the company's existing HPC infrastructure with a maximum of 64 CPUs. Excellent matches of the Lorenz coefficient maps for reservoir total/zones and Lorenz curves at all wells between the fine and coarse grid models have been achieved. Matches on the dynamic variables, e.g., pressure, gas breakthrough time, and GOR growth, in all producers are within the defined acceptable tolerances. The high quality of the static and dynamic matches between the coarse- and fine-grid models confirms that the reservoir properties of the coarse-grid model is very close to the fine-grid model and can be used a base model for history matching and uncertainty analysis.

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