Blowouts have catastrophic consequences and can potentially occur during any exploration or development projects. The situations that could lead to a blowout are underestimated pore pressure, rapid change in pressure, abnormal pressure or operation complexities such as complete fluid loss and thief zones. Blowouts are the most destructive and dangerous disaster in the oil and gas operations. Apart from causing fatalities and injuries, a blowout also causes ecological and environmental damages. While there is remedial work that can be done to manage the side effect of a blowout, an analysis has to be done to evaluate the extent of the damage. The oil spill analysis has to include all parameters and take into consideration all scenarios which would cater for the remedial work needed to address the aftermath of the blowout.

In this paper, the entire spill process beginning from the reservoir up to the surface is reviewed. The review covers the phenomenon involved in a spill process, the related HSE concerns, remedial work and spill modelling. The initial conditions, boundary conditions, and media transfer functions such as porous media properties, sand face and wellbore geometry are fully captured in the study and is reflected in the workflow. These parameters would affect the plume shape, size and geometry, blowout duration and oil spill volume estimation. The workflow presented in this paper is an effective technique for efficient decision making and remedial work in case of an oil spill resulting from an uncontrolled blowout.

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