Central Asia has become one of the energy hubs in the world with latest significant discoveries including but not limited to Kashagan, Tengiz, Karachaganak, Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli fields. Geographical and political dynamics of the Central Asian countries help the countries to stand out as a significant stable and sustainable source of energy in the region with great resources of supply and low domestic demand. This study outlines economic and technical analysis of oil and gas resources of central Asia under demand and supply dynamics of world hydrocarbon production. A comprehensive literature review has been carried out to investigate the basins and major oil and gas fields of the region, their development from the beginning, the technologies utilized, types of recovery processes, supply capabilities and potential of future supply are addressed. Real field applications are illustrated with applications in different parts of the region with challenges, advantages and drawbacks discussed and summarized in comparison to other major energy hubs of the world and their major oil and gas fields and basins. Central Asia is a relatively young and dynamic region with growth potential of harnessing the great and relatively new resources. Due to the political and geopolitical dynamics of the region, Central Asia serves as a strong and stable provider of energy obtained from fossil fuels. Low domestic demand in the region makes it more attractive in terms of the amount of export potential. There is no recent up-to-date study that investigates and outlines not only the technical characteristics of fields, reservoirs and basins in the region but also the demand/supply dynamics of the resources in the regions as they compare to the other major energy hubs in the world. This study comparatively outlines the key elements of successful applications in the region along with the lessons learned from challenges as well as the current and near-future potential of Central Asia as an energy hub in the world.

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