Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is an increasingly important tool for mitigating global climate change [1]. Pilot scale activities for the deposition of CO2 include depleted oil and gas reservoirs and saline formations, as well as the use of CO2 in enhanced oil and gas recovery (EOR). In these situations, CO2 is deposited in highly mobile gaseous or supercritical state.

Effective CCS requires zero tolerance for leakage at, or in the surrounding area. This emphasizes the need for precise Measurement, Monitoring & Verification (MMV); from deep strata up to the seafloor and beyond into the water column. Leak detection systems must detect even the smallest, slowest leaks and seepage of gas and fluid from the seabed, as well as from the injection facilities (e.g. manifolds, trees and templates). Compliance with currently known and future needs of regulators and government worldwide require an integrated and field-proven approach to this demanding MMV task.

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