Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers has been proposed as one of the most practical options of all geological sequestration possibilities. When saline aquifers are to be used to sequester CO2 for long periods, it will be necessary to monitor the migration and diffusion of CO2 in those reservoirs. Monitoring of geological sequestration has been identified as one of the highest priority needs in several recent international conferences on greenhouse gas control technologies. Monitoring is necessary to confirm the containment of CO2, to assess leakage paths, and to gain understanding of interactions between CO2, the rock-forming minerals, and formation fluids. Recently CO2 monitoring has moved to next stage for the purpose of leakage detection and quantification of CO2 stored in reservoirs. What kinds of monitoring methods we could use and do the methods have sufficient resolution and detection levels need to be addressed urgently. Seismic surveys provide the most attractive approach for obtaining the spatial coverage required for mapping the location and movement of CO2 in the subsurface. However, from the first Japanese pilot project, time-lapse sonic logging results showed P-wave velocity becomes less sensitive when the CO2 saturation up to 20%, while resistivity kept increasing with increase in CO2 saturation. This paper describes the results of P-wave velocity and resistivity measurements when injecting CO2 into water-saturated porous sandstones at laboratory and the results of comparison between P-wave velocity and resistivity changes obtained from both laboratory- and field-scales.
Monitoring is the major challenge in CO2 geological sequestration. A number of techniques can be used to monitor the distribution and CO2 migration in the subsurface (IPCC, 2005). However, the effectiveness of these techniques depends upon many factors, including the contrast between the physical properties of CO2 and resident formation fluids, the lithology and structure of the reservoir, formation fluid pressure and temperature variations, source and receiver locations, well spacing, and injection patterns (Hoversten and Myer, 2000). Seismic surveys provide the most attractive approach for obtaining the spatial coverage required for mapping the location and movement of CO2 in the subsurface. Seismic techniques basically measure the velocity and energy absorption of waves, generated artificially or naturally, through rocks. By taking a series of surveys over time, it is possible to trace the distribution of the CO2 in the reservoir. Time-lapse 3D seismic surveys at Weyburn (Canada) and Sleipner (Norway) demonstrated the usefulness in CO2 monitoring at the large CO2 injection sites (Arts et al., 2004; Li, 2003). The annual injection rate at Weyburn and Sleipner is around 1 million ton CO2 per year.