Abstract

The numerical evaluation of dielectric heating in a heavy oil containing sand is presented using a shaped dipole antenna under static (no oil production) and dynamic (with oil production) conditions. The electromagnetic simulator AxREMS™ was coupled to the commercial reservoir simulator STARS™ to model RF heating using three different shaped antenna designs (Straight dipole, Concave, and Convex design). The static simulations showed that the Concave design offers more uniform radiation pattern and temperature profile than the Straight and Convex counterparts. A conceptual model with seven sands (over- and under-burden and five oil-containing sands) was utilized for the dynamic simulation of downhole RF dielectric heating. The results indicated that all the RF heating cases had accelerated oil production than that found for the Base Case (cold production). Modeling shows that peak production is increased if RF heating is initiated before the start of production. However, all cases studied converged to approximately equal cumulative incremental oil above the Base Case, after about 700 days after the initiation of RF heating.

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