In this paper, the results of a multi-year research project to develop reliable engineering scale-up models of water-assisted pipeline transport of heavy oils and bitumen are described. Empirical correlations currently in use do not properly account for the effects of flow rate and pipe diameter on friction losses. They account not at all for effects of water cut, temperature, oil viscosity or sand concentration. Additionally, sand accumulation in operating pipelines is a concern because no accurate method of predicting the conditions under which sand can be transported is available.

In water-assisted pipeline transport, water present in the production fluid can form a layer that separates the oil-rich core from the pipe wall, thereby drastically reducing the energy required to transport the mixture. Alternately, small amounts of water can be added to provide the lubricating effect.

A multi-year project to explore water-assisted flow regimes was sponsored by Husky Energy, Nexen Inc., Shell Canada Energy and four other heavy oil and/or oil sands producers. An extensive experimental test program was carried out in SRC's 50, 100 and 260 mm (diameter) pipeline flow loops, using oil/water/sand mixtures containing heavy oil, bitumen or a viscous lube oil. Measurements collected during the tests included the frictional pressure drop, thickness of the oil wall fouling layer and solids concentration distribution. The friction loss model developed as part of this project assumes that the flow is only partially lubricated by the water layer so that oil-oil contact at the pipe wall becomes more important as the water cut, superficial mixture velocity and/or ratio of oil-to-water viscosity decreases. The sand transport criterion developed here compares the particle terminal settling velocity to the friction velocity of the turbulent water layer.

The models developed here provide accurate predictions for the scale-up, design and operation of water-assisted pipeline flow technology, which has significant potential to reduce the costs and environmental impact associated with heavy oil pro- duction and transportation.

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