This work presents the use of Dictionary Learning methods for a sparse representation of 4D seismic data in history matching. We consider a trade-off between the number of coefficients retained in the sparse data representation, the computational cost, and how well we can capture the main features of the 4D seismic signal. K-SVD is an iterative algorithm used in Dictionary Learning problems that alternates between the calculation of the sparse representation vector and dictionary update. For the definition of the sparse representation vector, one can constrain the problem into two distinct approaches: (1) sparsity-constrained; and (2) error-constrained. We evaluated the two methods and the influence of critical parameters of the algorithm (dictionary size, number of iterations, patch size, and training dataset size) using a synthetic reservoir model. Results showed that regardless of which of the constrained approaches we used, the dictionary learning method can capture the main features of the 4D seismic signal with a sparse representation. However, the number of nonzero coefficients is highly dependent on the approach. Besides, dictionary size, number of iterations, patch size, and training dataset size, also have a significant impact on the number of coefficients and the computational cost. Consequently, the selection of these variables is crucial as it might affect the history-matching process. In a permanent-reservoir-monitoring (big data) scenario, the use of sparse representation allows us to retain the main features of the reservoir in a reasonably sized data representation that can be directly used in a history matching method, leading to improved reservoir characterization and a better understanding of the reservoir properties. This paper gives a practical implementation of a technique already used in other areas (image denoising, processing of raw seismic data, and facies representation) applied to 4D seismic data.