A reliable, but non-conservative, field validated prediction of sand production is essential to decide whether sand control measures need to be installed during well completion. In this paper, field measurements of sand production are classified and quantified to obtain a better perspective of the downhole situation. Existing sand prediction techniques are presented, critically evaluated and their limitations discussed. The field application of the current generation of sand prediction techniques is described. The importance of integrating field observations, laboratory experiments and theoretical modelling is demonstrated.

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