American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc.


The objective of a hydraulic fracturing treatment is to place a conductive fracture deep into the producing formation. Fracture flow capacity, or ability of the propped fracture to conduct fluids, is one of the most important aspects of the treatment. Several laboratory test procedures have been developed to evaluate proppants under a wide range of closure pressures and concentrations.

As well depths increase, it is necessary to adjust proppant systems to compensate for additional loads under producing conditions. Recently, success has been encountered using mixtures of sand and high strength proppants in deep formations in proppants in deep formations in Northern Louisiana, East Texas, and Oklahoma.

Information provided in this work will offer guidelines which should be considered for any fracturing treatment using propping agent. Fracture flow capacity of the fracture system is of utmost importance currently because many marginal zones are being completed and fractured. Sustained production increase is also very production increase is also very important. Laboratory and field application data indicate proppant systems initially selected have an influence on well production behavior throughout the producing life of the well.


With the current emphasis on oil and gas production, much attention is being given to means of well stimulation. The objective of these stimulation treatments is to improve well production beyond what it will produce naturally.

Several methods of well production stimulation presently are available. These methods include wellbore clean-out treatments, chemical treatments in the formation matrix surrounding the wellbore, fracture acidizing, and hydraulic fracturing with proppant.

In many low permeability formations, wellbore improvement methods may not provide a large increase in production. provide a large increase in production.

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