Energy and hydrogen have a long history together; more than 200 years ago, hydrogen-powered the first internal combustion engines and is now a crucial component of the contemporary refining sector. It emits no greenhouse gases or pollutants directly and is light, storable, and energy-dense. But adoption of hydrogen in areas where it is virtually nonexistent, like transportation, buildings, and power generation, is necessary for it to significantly contribute to clean energy transitions (Simpson and Lutz 2007).

Today, hydrogen is gaining unheard-of momentum. The opportunity to make hydrogen a significant component of our future clean and secure energy supply should not be missed by the entire globe. Today, providing hydrogen to industrial users is a significant global industry. The worldwide demand for hydrogen, which has increased more than triple since 1975, is still on the rise. To produce hydrogen, 6% of the world's natural gas and 2% of its coal are used.

As a result, the generation of hydrogen results in annual CO2 emissions of around 830 million tonnes, which is equal to the combined emissions of the United Kingdom and Indonesia. Hydrogen can be collected from water, biomass, fossil fuels, or a combination of the three. Currently, natural gas serves as the main fuel for producing hydrogen, contributing about 75 percent of the 70 million tonnes of dedicated hydrogen produced annually worldwide. This makes up around 6% of the world's natural gas consumption. Due to coal's dominance in China, gas comes in second, and only a small portion is created by the usage of oil and electricity (Soltani, Rosen and Dincer 2014).

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