We extend the numerically-assisted RTA workflow proposed by Bowie and Ewert (2020) to (a) all fluid systems and (b) finite conductivity fractures. The simple, fully-penetrating planar fracture model proposed is a useful numerical symmetry element model that provides the basis for the work presented in this paper. Results are given for simulated and field data.
The linear flow parameter (LFP) is modified to include porosity (LFPꞌ=LFP√φ). The original (surface) oil in place (OOIP) is generalized to represent both reservoir oil and reservoir gas condensate systems, using a consistent initial total formation volume factor definition (Bti) representing the ratio of a reservoir HCPV containing surface oil in a reservoir oil phase, a reservoir gas phase, or both phases.
With known (a) well geometry, (b) fluid initialization (PVT and water saturation), (c) relative permeability relations, and (d) bottomhole pressure (BHP) time variation (above and below saturation pressure), three fundamental relationships exist in terms of LFPꞌ and OOIP. Numerical reservoir simulation is used to define these relationships, providing the foundation for numerical RTA, namely that wells: (1) with the same value of LFPꞌ, the gas, oil and water surface rates will be identical during infinite-acting (IA) behavior; (2) with the same ratio LFPꞌ/OOIP, producing GOR and water cut behavior will be identical for all times, IA and boundary dominated (BD); and (3) with the same values of LFPꞌ and OOIP, rate performance of gas, oil, and water be identical for all times, IA and BD. These observations lead to an efficient, semi-automated process to perform rigorous RTA, assisted by a symmetry element numerical model.
The numerical RTA workflow proposed by Bowie and Ewert solves the inherent problems associated with complex superposition and multiphase flow effects involving time and spatial changes in pressure, compositions and PVT properties, saturations, and complex phase mobilities.
The numerical RTA workflow decouples multiphase flow data (PVT, initial saturations and relative permeabilities) from well geometry and petrophysical properties (L, xf, h, nf, φ, k), providing a rigorous yet efficient and semi-automated approach to define production performance for many wells.
Contributions include a technical framework to perform numerical RTA for unconventional wells, irrespective of fluid type. A suite of key diagnostic plots associated with the workflow is provided, with synthetic and field examples used to illustrate the application of numerical simulation to perform rigorous RTA. Semi-analytical models, time, and spatial superposition (convolution), pseudopressure and pseudotime transforms are not required.