Switching to utilize HVFRs has been blossomed rapidly due to enormous advantages such as the ability to carry proppant and high potential lower cost. However, challenges remain in fracking fluids rheology characteristics due to a change in water quality that leads to poor proppant transport through fractures. The primary objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model based on prior published experimental data that can be used to predict HVFRs viscosity profile as a function of essential factors.

Water analysis and viscosity property characterization of the selected fracturing fluid (HVFR) were investigated to address the effect of water quality on proppant transport behavoir. In this paper, a case study of the Permian Basin produced water "high-TDS (125Kppm)" was chosen in screening criteria analysis. Also, different dosages (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 2.0 gpt) of HVFRs were selected to estimate the viscosity profile in freshwater and the Permian produced water.

The developed new model from this study can be used effectively to predict viscosity profile and proppant transport in HVFRs fluids taking into account fracture fluid dosage, water quality, and operation shear rate. The developed model covers HVFRs dosage ranging from 0.25 to 2.0 gpt (gallons per thousand gallons). This model can be used to assist in obtaining proppant settling velocity as a function of shear rate. The developed model shows the high accuracy of prediction HVFR viscosity profile with a low average error of 0.14% and 0.07% in freshwater and Permian produced water, respectively.

This paper will help provide a full understanding of the distinct changes of the mechanical characterization on the HVFRs. The findings provide an in-depth understanding of the behavior of HVFRs under high-salinity conditions effect, which could be used as guidance for fracture engineers to design and select the optimum dosage of friction reducers.

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