Abstract

Maximizing stimulated natural and hydraulic fracture network is one of the primary hydraulic fracturing concerns for economic production from a horizontal shale gas well. Geomechanical facies and preexisting fractures in each stage are identified based on similarities in formation characteristics to optimize the locations of perforation clusters. This often requires analyzing large volumes of drilling, Logging While Drilling (LWD) and Measurement While Drilling (MWD) data. In this paper, we develop a methodology that calculates the mechanical specific energy (MSE) using real-time drill string acceleration signals directly from its definition. High resolution vibration signals have been collected using a tri-axial accerlometer, which was an auxiliary tool included in acoustic borehole imager. This technique provides a cost-efficient solution for engineered completion design. Furthermore, we adopt deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) with signal processing to build a data pipeline that effectively extracts patterns from dynamic acceleration signals for rock lateral MSE classification. First, we apply discrete wavelet transform and Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) for signal denoising and pattern recognition. Then we construct an image dataset using multi-scale image fusion at pixel level from 3 sensor channels, including axial, lateral acceleration spectrograms and zero-padded revolutions per minute (RPM). The resulted RGB image dataset includes 4,000 images of 5 MSE ranges with various rock strength conditions. Our results demonstrate that the proposed deep learning model can achieve more than 90% classification accuracy. The deep learning results, as a reference source, were applied in selected Marcellus Shale Energy and Environmental Lab (MSEEL) wells engineered completion located in the Marcellus shale gas site.

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