Surfactant-Assisted Spontaneous Imbibition (SASI) and gas injection have been proven to improve production from Unconventional Liquid Reservoirs (ULR). However, the novelty of the method has resulted in a few publications to date. This study utilizes numerical modeling to upscale laboratory data of SASI for completion purposes and gas injection plus SASI for EOR. Novel gas and aqueous-phase injection strategies following primary depletion are designed based on actual completion and production data. Multiple sequencing configurations for both surfactant and gas injection are tested to propose the best combined-EOR scheme for ULR.

Parameters related to the mechanism of SASI and gas injection are retrieved from CT-generated core-scale model of laboratory experiments. SASI and gas injection experimental results were upscaled to model production response of a hydraulically fractured well with realistic fracture geometry and conductivity. The core-scale model was created to determine the diffusion coefficient, relative permeability, and capillary pressure curves by history-matching the laboratory data. The field-scale model was developed with a dual-porosity compositional model to predict production enhancement for various combined-EOR schemes in ULR.

Wettability and IFT alteration are the two primary mechanisms for SASI in enhancing production. Experimental studies revealed that surfactant solution recovered up to 30% OOIP, whereas water alone only recovered approximately 10% OOIP. Capillary pressure and relative permeability constructed from scaling group analysis and core-scale numerical models showed that surfactant addition enhances the two curves. On the other hand, gas injection EOR was found to be driven by multi-contact miscibility and diffusion. Parameters related to both methods were applied to the field-scale model for multiple completion and EOR schemes. Results demonstrate that the combination of SASI and gas injection possesses significant potential in improving production rates and estimated ultimate recoveries (EUR) in ULR. Soak times, surfactant concentration, injection pressure, duration of the cycle, and cumulative gas injection control the level of enhancement. With a large number of control variables, specific customizations can be optimized to suit criteria of different field applications.

You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.