We investigate the rate-transient behavior of multistage fractured horizontal wells in conventional and unconventional homogeneous and naturally fractured reservoirs, the latter of which can contain any spatial distribution of finite- or infinite-conductivity fractures of arbitrary length and orientation. The number and type of fractures (hydraulic or natural) intersecting the wellbore and self-intersecting is unlimited. We show that there are many factors that dominate the ratetransient behavior of horizontal wells intersected by multiple hydraulic fractures in naturally fractured reservoirs, such as fracture conductivity, length, and distribution, as well as whether or not fractures intersect the wellbore. It is shown that the magnitude of the fracture conductivity is one of the most important parameters that affects the production performance of multistage fractured horizontal wells. It is also shown that, as the space increases between hydraulic and natural fractures intersecting a horizontal well, the fracture pseudosteady-state flow regime tends to disappear.
Using the pressure and flow rate equivalency principle, we show that a production rate and/or cumulative production data set can be transformed into an equivalent pressure or pressure derivative data set. This is also very important for unconventional gas and oil reservoirs, where the boundary-dominated pseudosteady-state flow regime takes years to develop. A new technique is presented for determining stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) and production forecasting.
It is shown that rate derivatives exhibit unusual behavior, from which system identification and flow regime analysis become impossible. The material balance time does not totally correct the unusual behavior of the rate derivative. However, the deconvolved pressure of the cumulative production derivatives behave like pressure derivatives.