Fractures are common features of many well-known reservoirs. Naturally fractured reservoirs consist of fractures in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks (matrix) and formations. Faults in many naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs often have high permeability zones, and are connected to many fractures with varying conductivities. Furthermore, in many naturally fractured reservoirs, faults and fractures can be discrete (i.e., not a connected-network fracture system). To understand the pressure behavior of these continuously and discretely fractured reservoirs, semianalytical solutions are presented. These solutions are used for transient well test interpretation of formations containing a network of discrete and/or connected (continuous) finite- and infinite-conductivity fractures. In this paper we present an extensive literature review of the pressure transient behavior of fractured reservoirs. First, we show that the Warren and Root (1963) dual-porosity model is a fictitious homogenous porous medium because it does not contain any fractures. Second, using the new solutions, we show that for most naturally fractured reservoirs the Warren and Root (1963) dual-porosity model is inappropriate and fundamentally incomplete for the interpretation of pressure transient well tests because it does not capture the behavior of these reservoirs.
We examined many field well tests published in the literature. With few exceptions, none of them shows the behavior of the Warren and Root (1963) dual-porosity model. These examples exhibit the very rich pressure behavior of discretely and continuously fractured reservoirs. Unlike the single derivative shape of the Warren and Root (1963) model, the derivatives of these examples exhibit many different flow regimes depending on fracture distribution, and on their intensity and conductivity. We show these flow regimes using our new model for discretely and continuously fractured reservoirs. These derivatives will be a valuable diagnostic tool for well test interpretation. Most well tests published in the literature do not exhibit the Warren and Root (1963) dual-porosity reservoir model behavior. If we interpret them this dual-porosity model, then the estimated permeability, skin factor, interporosity flow coefficient (λ), and storativity ratio (ω) will not represent the actual reservoir parameters.