The need to update energy policies worldwide in order to deal with climate change effectively is unanimously considered a priority by the scientific and political communities as well as by the general public. It is also unanimously believed that what is needed is an approach integrating energy usage and production. Such an approach requires that Countries speed up the transition towards an economy not any longer based on fossil fuels, but instead on increased demand/supply efficiency and on renewable sources, while aiming at clean technologies and reducing emissions wherever fossil fuels are used. Italian universities and research centres have started specific studies and programmes regarding CO2 Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). Such initiatives have been financed thanks to European and National funding. The latter has financed a vast programme based on a strong synergy between national stakeholders, also via the participation to international initiatives like the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) and the European Technological Platform for Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plants (ZEP). The main strength of the Italian system lies in the strong will of the Italian Government to adopt a new energy policy. The second strength is the starring of the main Italian industrial subjects, above all ENEL and ENI, which have started important demonstrative projects (not to mention Techint, Carbosulcis, and others). Another important issue is the large quantity of geophysical data available for many parts of the Italian territory that are strategic for assessing the CO2 storage capacity. Finally, Italy is of great interest for the scientific community because of the presence (onshore and offshore) of numerous natural sites of CO2 leaks, thus offering unique opportunities of evaluating its impacts on the natural environment, and of tuning up the monitoring techniques of CO2 leaks.