The accuracy of streamline reservoir simulations depends strongly on the quality of the velocity field and the accuracy of the streamline tracing method. For problems described on complex grids (e.g., corner-point geometry or fully unstructured grids) with full-tensor permeabilities, advanced discretization methods, such as the family of multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) schemes, are necessary to obtain an accurate representation of the fluxes across control volume faces. These fluxes are then interpolated to define the velocity field within each control volume and streamlines are integrated. Existing methods for the interpolation of the velocity field and integration of the streamlines do not preserve the accuracy of the fluxes computed by MPFA discretizations.
Here we propose a new method for the reconstruction of the velocity field with high-order accuracy from the fluxes provided by MPFA discretization schemes. This reconstruction relies on a correspondence between the MPFA fluxes and the degrees of freedom of a mixed finite-element method (MFEM) based on the first-order Brezzi-Douglas-Marini space. This link between the finite-volume and finite-element methods allows the use of flux reconstruction and streamline tracing techniques developed previously by the authors for mixed finite elements. After a detailed description of our streamline tracing method, we study its accuracy and efficiency using challenging test cases.