Conventional completions and testing methods of low permeability gas reservoirs involve the cost and logistics of balanced and underbalanced perforating, next day stimulation treatment, surface production equipment, and the need for flaring during clean-up operations. In Canada, due to government regulations, operators will conduct the buildup test immediately after one or two day of clean-up operation. This practice has resulted in post-frac welltest analysis being masked by fracture fluid still present in the proppant pack and formation, resulting in misleading estimates of reservoir and fracture parameters important for production forecasting and completion evaluation.
Perforation Inflow Diagnostic, referred as PID testing, is a modern testing technique designed to deliver in a cost-effective manner valuable reservoir information such as: reservoir pressure, formation flow capacity, unstimulated gas inflow rate potential and near wellbore damage conditions prior to the fracture treatment. The advantages of PID testing are numerous: capability of accurate measurement of very low gas rates in low permeability (tight) gas wells (often reported as too small to measure), provides a safe testing environment, ensures secrecy and it defines itself as a green well testing procedure since it does not require flaring or venting of natural gas. PID testing is simply the surface and/or subsurface monitoring of the pressure response following extreme underbalanced perforating conditions, using electronic pressure recorders capable of high sampling rate. Unlike conventional testing procedures, the surface valve is closed during the entire test period and the formation fluids are produced into the closed chamber (casing and/or tubing volume). The measured pressures are converted to corresponding gas rates, based on the well-established closed chamber theory. PID testing therefore allows the collection of pressure and rate data required to derive the in-situ matrix permeability, wellbore skin and reservoir pressure.