This paper describes the evolution of the hydraulic fracturing approach and design in the Alpha reservoir over the past years. Alpha reservoir in XYZ field is a laminated sandstone reservoir with low permeability in the range of 20 to 140 md at a depth of approximately 4,000 to 4,500 ft true vertical depth (TVD). XYZ field is located in Rokan block, Riau, Central Sumatra region.
Due to Alpha reservoir's nature, producing from this reservoir commercially requires stimulation. Hydraulic fracturing has been applied as the selected stimulation method to increase productivity from this reservoir. However, several challenges were recognized during the initial period, such as depleted reservoir pressure, indication of fracture height growth, and low to medium Young's modulus, which leads to few screened-out cases as well as low production gain after the fracturing treatment.
The fracturing job in Alpha reservoir has been applied since 2002. However, pressure depletion was observed through this time until waterflood optimization started in May 2018 by converting commingled injection to injection dedicated to the Alpha reservoir. The pressure responded and increased from 350 psi to approximately 800 psi. Hence this reservoir still cannot be produced in single completion without the hydraulic fracturing job due to laminated reservoir and low-permeability character.
A detailed look at the mechanical earth model (MEM) was done to revise the elastic properties and stress profile considering reservoir pressure change. The revised model was later used as an input for fracture geometry simulation. Calibration injection tests were performed and analyzed prior to the main fracturing treatments to determine fracture closure pressure and leakoff characteristics, which led to fracturing fluid efficiency. Results of these tests were used in job modifications regarding pad percentage, fracturing fluid rheology, proppant volume, and proppant concentration. Pressure history matching both after fracturing and in real time as well as the temperature log were used to validate the MEM and fracture geometries. Each change, approach, and impact were documented and statistically analyzed to determine a generic trend and design envelope for the Alpha reservoir.
Between 2019 and 2020, nine wells were stimulated that specifically targeted the Alpha reservoir, with continuous improvement in fracturing design and geomechanics properties with each well. After fracturing, the 30-day oil recovery was superior, higher than previous fractured wells, reaching more than 255 BFPD on average. The successful development of the Alpha reservoir with hydraulic fracturing led to further milestones to maximize oil recovery in XYZ field.