Treating deep hot carbonate reservoirs, such as those found in the Arabian Gulf, presents a series of complex and related challenges to achieve effective and uniform stimulation. Due to the elevated temperature and heterogeneous formation, achieving good reservoir contact with an acid system along the entire interval of interest requires robust treatment fluids that can withstand the harsh environment. Recently, a novel single-phase retarded acid (SPRA) system and an engineered degradable large-sized particulate and fiber-laden diverter (LPFD) were introduced in a well in the Arabian Gulf, yielding strong results for the stimulation treatment.
The SPRA, a 15% HCl-based acid system, showed excellent performance in a high-temperature environment (320°F). The fluid delivered similar friction pressures to unmodified 15% HCl, wormholing performance equivalent to emulsified acid without encountering the issues of fluid quality with respect to emulsion stability, and much higher dissolution power than organic acids and chelating agents. The pressure drop after the first acid stage was over 1,000 psi in about 60 min. After the second stage of acid, the pressure drop was close to 1,000 psi in about 30 min.
Previous stimulation jobs in the region indicated a need for a significant amount of traditional diversion materials to achieve an effective plugging of the leakoff zones. A novel degradable LPFD system was introduced, achieving a significant increase of injection pressure (~1,000 psi) across the perforations. In addition to the effect on the diversion pressure, the implementation of the LPFD system has helped to reduce the footprint in offshore operations, has simplified materials handling, and has delivered the most efficient diversion performance in bullhead operations compared to other diverters.
This article presents a novel method of stimulating deep hot offshore wells by combining an efficient SPRA and a unique degradable LPFD. These methods represent a step change to current practices and can be considered for effective stimulation in challenging carbonate formations.