When drilling wells for hydrocarbon extraction, completing a specific interval of the well in the fastest time possible is a key requirement. One of the main contributing factors for improved performance is the drill bit.
It is well known in the drilling industry that the stress state of the formation around the bit and drilled well is significantly lowered once penetrated by the bit. Conventional single diameter polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bits are not capable of taking advantage of this reduced effective rock strength.
Dual-diameter bits address the identified challenges through the use of elegant physical principles and offer an efficient, reliable means of drilling. The concentric, dual-diameter design lowers the effective rock strength encountered by the critical shoulder-to-gauge area of the bit's cutting structure.
The smaller pilot section of the bit design drills a pilot hole, which reduces the confinement and thus strength of the rock drilled by the larger reamer section. The reamer section of the bit is able to utilize the bedded pilot bit for stabilization to offset the greater forces associated with larger diameter drilling. The offset blade configuration of the bits also offers 360-degree contact the borehole and helps deliver a gun barrel hole quality.
This paper introduces the development of a unique, two-stage, dual-diameter profile, and polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit for an application in Indonesia. Typically, multiple drill bits are required to finish the section, which consists of abrasive sandstone with some layers of coal. The objective was to improve the drilling performance while also minimizing non-productive time (NPT) for a bit trip.
The paper provides and in-depth evaluation of the bit performance over several field trials. The first bit was run in a motor assembly and improved 14% rate of penetration (ROP) with exceptional dull condition. The drilling parameters indicated that the bit generated higher ROP with lower weight on bit (WOB) compared to other bit types. This performance convinced the operator to run the dual-diameter PDC bit in a more challenging field where its remarkable performance achieved field records. In comparison to the closest offset well, dual-diameter drill bits replaced three-bit runs with 56% longer intervals drilled and improved overall ROP by 41%. In addition, rig time was reduced by 5.3 days. The operator was extremely pleased with the bit performance and decided to use a dual-diameter PDC bit as the primary option to drill this section in every field.