The science of statistical analysis uses advanced mathematics beyond the capabilities of most people, but the principles behind those high level equations are essential in understanding the role of chance in conventional safety performance metrics. A series of spreadsheets has been developed to illustrate some of the essential principles, without utilizing the daunting rigorous mathematical proofs. Readers who experiment with these spreadsheet simulators may be surprised to find some of their routine or basic assumptions about safety statistics are actually scientifically indefensible. Studying the principles illustrated by these simulators may suggest needed modifications to common industrial safety programs.

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