For years forestry practice has not been conducted wisely per applicableregulation and standard which in turn create significant long term impact tothe surrounding forestry areas as well as disturb the long term sustainablegrowth of the forest that finally impacted the community life and biodiversityof the area.
Tangguh LNG Facilities is located in production forest on Bintuni BayRegency, Papua, Indonesia. Total land purchased by project is 3266ha.Construction of the facilities requires the clearing of some 800 ha productionforest and the remaining area of about 2400 ha will be maintained as bufferzone area. Perimeter fence will be developed to protect the buffer zone area.Construction of the facilities in such area with rich biodiversity is achallenging effort particularly to minimize the impacts to the surroundingforests in compliance with the Indonesian and international regulation andstandards, and to ensure the biodiversity protection and environmentalprotection of the forest area.
To achieve the objectives, Tangguh LNG Project develops and implements thetree cutting and land clearing plan to comply with the Indonesia applicableregulations and International best practice including the implementation ofReduced Impact Logging Guidelines for Indonesia. The plan developed by forestryexperts and implemented with full supervision from project team. A number ofcompliance checklists have been developed to ease the implementation of theplan which also helps to track any deviation of the implementation to the saidplan.
With the implementation of such plan up to the current stage of the project, minimization of impact to the surrounding area could be achieved and it isexpected that in overall the project activities and the operation of thefacilities could minimize the negative impact and maximize its positive impactto the area. This will harmonize the existence of the facilities with thesurrounding environment so Industrial facilities are not perceived anymore asthe major source of environmental impact.
Indonesia was known as very rich country in forest resources and as the homeof the most magnificent forest in the world with rank of third behind Braziland Democratic republic of Congo. The Indonesian forest is also home ofvarious species, including 11 percent of the world's plant species, 10 percentof its mammal species, and 16 percent of its bird species. It is estimatedalso that 1.5 to 65 million people live in or depend on the Indonesia's forest.The dependencies cover the shifting cultivation, harvesting and selling oftimber, gathering non timber product etc.
Forest serves also beyond the forest product. More than 16 million peoplelive in the country's 15 largest watersheds. The forest help protect freshwatersupplies by stabilizing soil on hillslopes and regulating the speed and timingof river flow. Yet the forest is part of human life support, where itssustainable condition has to be preserved.
However over the past decades the forest is in real threat of deforestation.In Indonesia, only century ago, total forest cover has been estimated at about170 million ha. Today, it is approximately 98 millions ha and it is believedthat at least half of it is degraded by human activity. Since 1996, thedeforestation appears to have accelerated to approximately 2 million ha peryear. The deforestation ranging from large scale logging operation to smallscale clearance by family farmers, clear cutting to make industrial agricultureto devastation by repeated fire. Deforestation figure for each island inIndonesia is outlined on chart 1. It can be noticed that Papua and Maluku (onthe eastern part of Indonesia) are the only island which still have good forestcoverage, or in other word is still relatively undisturbed. This is fardifferent compare to other island such as Kalimantan and Sumatera which havelost their forest for more than 50 %