Active exploration of gas, oil and fish resources of Baltic, Barents, White, Japanese and Okhotsky seas leads to constant increase of anthropogenic pressure on costal and surrounding shelf areas. Development of coastal infrastructure, growth of freight traffics thought northern routes, including oil and liquified natural gas transportations from coast of Artics, fishery development requires careful environmental and resource management in order to avoid pollution, numerous forms of technogenic influence and conflicts in these urbanized areas.
Key concept of Russian Federation Sea policy suggests development of comprehensive scientific research of costal territories. Special attention is paid to ecological monitoring of Sea and ensuring its safety, including prevention of oil spills during investigation and transportation, construction and reconstruction of reception facilities for collecting and processing of waste.
The Federal Ecomonitoring program is understood as comprehensive supervision and forecast of environment state under influence of natural and anthroponous factors. It includes monitoring of atmosphere, lands, woods, water objects and marine habitants of unique system of Baikal Lake, continental shelf of Russian Federation; as well as subsoil conditions of the sea bed beneath the maritime belt, inland seas and exclusive economic zone of Russian Federation. The implementation of these functions has been signed to Federal Nature Management Supervision Service founded at 2004.