The system of protected areas of the Russian Federation includes nature reserves, wildlife sanctuaries, national parks and natural monuments, and other categories of objects. The report discusses the reserves and, to a lesser extent, national parks and federal wildlife preserves, as soon as they are include in system of marine and coastal protected areas (MPA) because the waters of the seas are under the jurisdiction of the Federation and any protected areas can be established only at the federal level there. Only nature reserves and national parks are composed of scientific departments, which are responsible to conduct scientific researches and monitor the status of ecosystems. Currently in Russia there are 108 nature reserves, 40 national parks and 70 federal reserves.

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