This work is dedicated to the search and analysis of the microbial communities able to perform quick and effective biodestruction of the aqueous oily wastes. We developed a method for estimation of efficiency of existing preparations and for qualitative evaluation of the degree of carbon compounds degradation. This method will be the basis of the technology of oily decontamination of water and forelands in the arctic conditions. The experiments wede done in the conditions very close to the arctic (on the White Sea Biological Station and in a laboratory setting. We have isolated several microbial communities that are able to perform the destruction oil carbohydrates. On the basis of these communities, we plan to create the preparations highly effective in the arctic conditions.
Utilization of oily wastes in the low temperatures conditions is of great actuality when developing oil fields in the far north. In the moderate climate regions, oil residuals (after the physical and/or physic-chemical purification) are utilized by soil microorganisms or using several commercially available microbial preparations that accelerate the process. The active components of such preparations are usually carbohydrate-oxidizing microorganisms that are able to perform oil conversion into the bacterial biomass of organisms that, in turn, transfer the oily wastes into the safe components. These biopreparations are actively used after the physical and/or physic-chemical remediation. Microbial bioremedation allows effective utilization of residual oily wastes, if using of other methods is economically unadvizable, technically complicated and/or ecologically unsafe. At the same time, the end-product of microbial conversion of oily wastes is the biomass of carbohydrate-oxidizing bacteria which serves as a feed for the other organisms of this geobiocoenosis.
The literature search has shown that nowadays many preparations are developed that are aimed to the control of the oily wastes. These preparations are masses of viable microorganisms-biodestructors and differ one from another by strains used for their creation. These strains are characterized by different physiological and biochemical properties, such as thermotolerance, osmophility, optimal pH, ability to utilize different classes of carbohydrates and n-alkanes in their metabolic processes. These properties of the strains- biodestructors determine the efficiency of their using in different climatic zones in order to control chemically different wastes.
Generally, all existing preparations are intended for the destruction of the oily wastes of not only soil, but also fresh-water basins, areas of seas, factory runoffs and contaminated inner surfaces of process reservoirs and tanks.