Successful completion and performance of a horizontal well is one of the most dynamic and complex tasks within the oilfield industry, especially when conventional well is an underperformer.
Sustaining production from tight reservoirs with conventional stimulation techniques is one of the most challenging tasks. The reservoir of interest is a tight, low permeable carbonate with thin layers. Productivity proven insignificant with considerable in place volume. The objective is to increase and sustain productivity of a pilot well that consists of an open-hole completion.
Multi-disciplinary data is reviewed in a systematic way to identify reasons of low productivity and to identify possible solutions. After comprehensive studies and risk assessments, it is concluded to re-complete well with cemented Frac string to perform hydraulic fracturing with Plug and Perf (PnP) technique. This technique is applied within a conventional tight reservoir, allowing for the flexibility of stage count, stage spacing, and multi-cluster design in order to maximize the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) along 2,000 ft. in upper layer, 1,000 ft. across middle layers and 2,000 ft. in lower layer. In addition, company and service provider collaborated to enhance this design through a zero over-flush technique along with diverting agents.
Core, logging data collected from pilot hole is used to build 1D Mechanical Earth Model (MEM), which is further calibrated with MiniFrac performed with Wireline Formation Tester (WFT).
A challenge is to avoid Frac height growth towards underlying reservoir, which is separated by dense carbonate layer of 40 ft.
Extensive modeling is conducted in order to choose correct Frac design along the lateral in which landing depth is variable in different target layers of interest that added complexities to Frac Fluid selection. Finally, two Frac systems are selected for different segments of the lateral. After running a cemented casing, Six (06) Acid fracturing treatment and five (05) Proppant fracturing treatments are successfully executed in the lower and upper layers respectively.
A comprehensive production test is performed to evaluate and compare the testing results of pre and post frac well. To evaluate the contribution of each stage, a Production Logging Tool (PLT) is deployed. The PLT tool shows the contribution and flow distribution across all the clusters and the efficiency of the Frac design and diversion technique/system.
This paper summarizes the design processes, selection criteria, challenges, and lessons learned during design and execution phases. It may provide a potential approach for selecting the proper hydraulic fracturing (Acid Vs Prop) and technique (PnP with clusters Vs PnP with one set of perforation). Company has significant portfolio of undeveloped tight carbonate reservoirs with low productivity and considerable volume in place. This technique will pave the way for developing these reservoirs.