Time-lapse seismic is often used for reservoir monitoring. Although some case studies have been reported, especially for offshore oil fields, similar onshore Abu Dhabi studies have been limited. Onshore monitoring challenges are mainly due to hard carbonate reservoir rock, in which fluid displacement invokes only minor changes in rock properties. Moreover, complex near-surface structures create strong surface-related noises such as surface waves and elastic scattering. These noises significantly degrade the repeatability if repeat data are recorded with positioning error of 1 meter. To address the problems above, permanent reservoir monitoring has been spotlighted recently. Although permanent receivers are widely used for seismology, few studies of permanent seismic sources have been reported. In this study, we demonstrate a permanent source, Accurately Controlled Rotational Operated Signal System (ACROSS), which has a fixed position and excites highly repeatable seismic waves by rotating an accurately controlled eccentric mass. We deployed ACROSS at the Aquistore CCS test field onshore in Canada and recorded the wavefield with permanent receivers buried underground. The ACROSS system was operated several times throughout one year. The data acquired in a continuous 45 day operation were analyzed to calculate variation of amplitudes. The result indicated that we had obtained very stable waveforms with less than 3% variation if the data is stacked sufficiently. We also compared the two datasets acquired at different times of the year by calculating the normalized root mean square (NRMS) as a repeatability index. The histogram showed that the peak of NRMS distribution approached ~15% with only front and back mute processing. These results support our conclusion that an ACROSS system has potential to be used for reservoir monitoring in onshore fields by providing highly repeatable data for an extended time period.

You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.