In Kuwait, the Najmah source rock is characterized by a complex diagenetic history and depositional variability. Accurate determination of the porosity and permeability logs is essential for improved petrophysical evaluation, which may not be properly performed using conventional methods. This complexity makes the conventional evaluation methods alone insufficient to determine porosity and permeability logs accurately. A major goal of this study was to produce high-resolution porosity-permeability logs for Najmah Formation using advanced digital analysis and geochemistry measurements.
Sixty (60) feet of continuous core were analyzed from an oil field in southwest Kuwait. The analysis started with dual-energy x-ray CT scanning of full-diameter whole core and core gamma logging. Plug-size samples were selected to represent the varying porosity and organic matter content along the entire core length. Two-dimensional Scanning Electron Microscopy (2D SEM) and three-dimensional Focused Ion Beam (3D FIB-SEM) images were acquired and analyzed to accurately determine the organic matter content and porosity. Matrix permeability was directly computed from the 3D FIB-SEM images using the Lattice Boltzmann method. The SEM porosity was calibrated by determining the amount of movable hydrocarbons at in-situ reservoir conditions based on geochemical analyses (XRF, XRD and LECO), pyrolysis indices, PVT data and adsorption isotherm experiments.
The digitally obtained porosity and permeability data showed a unique trend that was used to produce permeability at the core level. The integration between digital analysis and geochemistry data increased the estimated porosity and confirmed higher mobile hydrocarbon in the reservoir in comparison with the measured data at the surface. This produced a new porosity-permeability trend that was more representative of the reservoir conditions and caused a significant increase in the rock permeability.
The integration between the digital SEM analysis and the geochemical measurements was critical to estimate in-situ porosity and permeability characteristics of the tight formation under study. Moreover, this analysis provided an important tool for obtaining different high-resolution porosity and permeability logs based on various porosity considerations (effective, organic, inorganic, clay). This would lead to higher accuracy in determining reservoir properties for improved quantification of reserves and productivity.