Vertical well bores are drilled thousands of feet into the earth through sediment layers, the water table, and shale rock formations in order to reach the oil and gas. The drilling is then angled horizontally, where a cement casing is installed and will serve as a conduit for the massive volume of water, fracking fluid, chemicals and sand needed to fracture the rock and shale. In some cases, prior to the injection of fluids, small explosives are used to open up the bedrock. The fractures allow the gas and oil to be removed from the formerly impervious rock formations.
Pollution occurs from entry of foreign materials into air, water and/or ground. In marine environment many toxic chemicals convert to tiny particles which are then taken up by plankton and benthos animals. In this way, the toxins are concentrated upward within food chains. Many particles combine chemically in a manner highly depletive of oxygen, causing water to become anoxic.
In this context, for NDC, the adoption and implementation of a vigorous Environmental Management System (EMS) is paramount. The company is an ISO-14001 certified, therefore, it embraces an effectual process for evaluating the aspect related to its operations. This process is in accordance with ADNOC code of practices (ADNOC COPs), which are the general framework of all ADNOC groups of companies.