Hydraulic fracturing has remained a fundamental technique for stimulation of oil and gas reservoirs for enhanced or economic recovery of hydrocarbons from tight formations. Transporting proppant downhole without any interruption and maximum recovery of fracturing fluids are two important criteria for successful hydraulic fracturing. To achieve such objectives, the fracturing fluid should demonstrate good viscosity and complete cleanup of gelling agents. As wells are exploited at greater depths in environments of higher temperature and pressure, fracturing fluid selection is key. Fracturing fluids prepared by crosslinking guar, guar derivatives, and other naturally occurring polymers with borate or metal crosslinkers often exhibit instability at very high temperatures. The key reason for instability of the fracturing fluid is because strength of the bonds between the polymer chain and crosslinker decreases sharply in addition to breakdown of the glycosidic bonds between monomer units of the polymer chain beyond 375°F. Additionally, metal crosslinked bonds are prone to shear degradation, creating doubt for a successful job in high temperature long reach wells.

To address these issues, a synthetic gelling-agent-based fracturing fluid that can work at temperatures greater than 400°F was developed. The gelling agent is a terpolymer, which can be crosslinked with a zirconium-based crosslinker. This paper discusses evaluation and performance of an extreme temperature fracturing fluid. This fracturing fluid system has sufficient proppant carrying viscosity and provides efficient cleanup using delayed oxidized breaker. Analysis of fluid stability and delayed oxidizing breaker usage is presented in addition to performance parameters, such as regained permeability and fluid loss. The study illustrates performance of the synthetic gelling-agent-based fracturing fluid at temperatures ranging from 380 to 420°F.

You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.