The paper addresses the use of simulation in the design phase and during operations for the determination of the safety of LNG operation offshore and onshore (jetty).

In the design phase the following questions are addressed:

  • How is the operation executed (procedures)

  • What is needed (equipment)

  • Limiting conditions (downtime)

  • What in case of emergencies

  • Safety level

And concluded through a verification based upon full mission simulations (Familiarization and training).

To address these questions the following tools are used:

During the Design phase:

  • Static computations

  • Fast-time simulations of normal operations

  • Fast-time simulations of emergencies

  • Risk Assessment models (QRA)

During verification and implementation:

  • Real-time simulators

Typical outcomes of these operational simulation studies are using, engine use, rudder use, ship speed and tug use to assess the weather downtime, the required tug power and type, nautical procedures and VTS requirements.

In the design phase more attention is paid to a risk assessment based upon large number of fast time simulations of pre-defined emergency scenarios.

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