This paper focuses on the effect of the sea conditions and ship motions on ship operations and combatant activities. Readers interested in an exhaustive discussion of Bismarck, her creation and these epic battles in never before seen detail are encouraged to consult Garzke, 2019.

The sea conditions were reported in the ship’s logs and were used to drive modern seakeeping tools to evaluate the probable ship motions. From the ship motions we have calculated the effect that these would have on the ability to train and elevate the guns for range.

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