As in automotive, the use of lithium-ion batteries onboard vessels is increasing rapidly. Whether in hybrid or all-electric mode, the technology makes possible significant to even game-changing reductions in fuel consumption and emissions. However, as their use increases, so too will negative impacts both before installation on the ship and after removal. At the front end, this paper will explore the abundance of the raw materials, their mining and related ecological and societal concerns. At the back end, reuse markets and recycling will be covered including cost drivers and emissions. Recycling will examine the methods and their efficiencies, module disassembly problems and neutralization of remaining charge. The paper will close with environmental risks in disposal.

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