This paper, which is in part an update to Beck and Reed (2001), discusses current developments in seakeeping computations for ships maneuvering in a seaway. First a brief historical background is given in order to put present computations in context. Then a detailed discussion of the necessary components for simulating maneuvering in waves in an extreme seaway is presented. As part of determining the required elements of a successful, computationally-fast model for maneuvering in extreme seas, the results of a "force study" (computational experiments designed to identify the important components of a computationally-fast model), are presented. Also discussed are the tradeoffs between high fidelity, but computationally slow, models solving the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations (often called computational fluid dynamics or CFD); and blended methods that are computationally fast but use approximations that blend linear and nonlinear potential flow calculations with empirical corrections for viscous forces.

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