This paper describes a numerical bulbous bow retrofit analysis for a modern container ship operating under a slow-steaming profile. The retrofit analysis is used as an example of a design process based on high-fidelity CFD simulations and surrogate modelling. The bulbous bow design candidates are generated through a parametric modification of the original bow geometry. The alternative designs are evaluated using the open-source CFD toolbox OpenFOAM and the computed effective power predictions are used to rank each design across the entire operating profile. Additionally, the influence of the alternative bulb designs on the wave-making resistance and the propeller performance is examined in detail. Surrogate models are then used to explore the parameterized design space and to establish a sequence of design exploration and exploitation cycles in the retrofit analysis with the ultimate goal of generating an improved bow shape.

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