This paper discusses the science of natural gas, its composition and ways to determine and coherently express its physical and chemical properties. Pricing of natural gas is shown with regard to weight and energy. A 60 Ton harbor tug employing either a set of constant rpm engines for CPP operation, or a set of variable rpm engines for FPP operation, with a standard load profile is made the basis for discussion. Advantage of evaluating thermal efficiency of gas engines relative to the higher heating value of natural gas, as against its lower heating value is explained. A compendium of storage options and the resulting endurance with the use of natural gas forms such as liquified gas (LNG), compressed gas (CNG) and adsorbed gas (ANG) is presented. Steps to ascertain fuel consumption of the gas engines operated according to the load profile and an approach to evaluate and relate the quantities of LNG, CNG and ANG is shown. Fuel costs and emissions from the tug operation using natural gas as fuel are evaluated per month and compared with diesel and residual fuels. Green House Gas emissions as a summation of emission constituents from the natural gas fuelled tug operation is detailed, and its need emphasized. The concepts of useful work done, emission efficiency parameter and energy efficiency parameter, which may be helpful in the design of harbor tugs and similar service vessels are proposed. The emission efficiency parameter is evaluated and analyzed for the 60 ton harbor tug.
Introduction to natural gas: A comparative study of its storage, fuel costs and emissions for a harbor tug
Eswara, Arun Kishore , Misra, S. C., and U. S. Ramesh. "Introduction to natural gas: A comparative study of its storage, fuel costs and emissions for a harbor tug." Paper presented at the SNAME Maritime Convention, Bellevue, Washington, USA, November 2013. doi: https://doi.org/10.5957/SMC-2013-T22
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