Weld cladding of carbon steel with stainless steel alloys is common for applications where corrosion resistance is required. While automated gas metal arc welding (GMAW) has been shown to reliably produce clad layers with adequate flatness, joint fusion, and acceptable levels of dilution, porosity defects have been reported as a significant issue. Due to the large volumes of weld metal commonly required, commercially available electrodes are preferred over custom-made products to reduce cost. GMAW uses a continuously-fed electrode in wire form and productivity requirements demand long arc-on times for these cladding applications, making improved contact-tip-wear an important consideration as well.

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