Two distortion modeling methods, mapping plastic strain and lump-pass modeling, were developed and validated for predicting distortion on large welded structures to reduce the computation time. The mapping plastic-strain method requires two kinds of models, local models and a global model. The local models are analyzed to predict plastic strains and the global model is analyzed by mapping the plastic strains to predict distortions. The lump-pass modeling method includes two kinds of analyses: a thermal analysis and a thermomechanical analysis. The thermal analysis is conducted to predict temperature history. The thermomechanical analysis is performed to predict distortion by inputting the predicted temperature history.

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