This paper presents analysis and preliminary design of the containment scheme for hydrocarbon emission control of tankers during loading and unloading.

The economic and environmental impact due to hydrocarbon emission or simply VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) emission during loading, unloading and transport of crude oil in tankers (including shuttle tankers) is significant. In an earlier paper by the authors (Husain, et al. 2003) presented at the SNAME/WMTC 2003 describes a closed, negative pressure system to prevent or minimize VOC from tankers during transport. Negative pressure is not used in the VOC containment scheme during loading and unloading – the subject matter of this paper.

There are over 200 million barrels per year of oil being loaded at terminal facilities in the USA. Presently, the number of terminal vapor control facilities (nearly 172) is inadequate. This results in ozone formation/smog and financial loss from the evaporation of crude (0.2% loss by weight). Government regulations regarding crude oil emissions are rapidly evolving. Therefore an onboard vapor control system, free of dependency on crowded shore based (or non existent) facility is deemed necessary and appropriate.

This content is only available via PDF.
You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.