During the design of the Twelve Meter yacht STARS AND STRIPES, the design team placed great emphasis upon the minimization of all forms of hydrodynamic resistance: skin friction, lift-induced drag, form drag, and wave resistance. In this paper, the authors discuss methods used to measure, predict, and minimize the wave resistance of Twelve Meter yachts. After a brief review of wave resistance theory, the authors discuss a method by which the wave resistance was determined directly from measured wave-profiles. Numerical techniques used to theoretically predict the curves of wave resistance from the yacht designers' descriptions of hull geometry are examined and the predictions are compared to the experimentally determined wave resistance. Finally, the authors discuss hull optimization techniques, based upon the minimization of the theoretical wave resistance, which enable the yacht designers to develop hull shapes of minimum wave drag.

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