In this paper, foil and planform parameters which govern the level of viscous drag produced by the keel of a sailing yacht are discussed. It is shown that the application of laminar boundary-Layer flow offers great potential for increased boat speed resulting from the reduction in viscous drag. Three foil shapes have been designed and it is shown that their hydrodynamic characteristics are very much dependent on location and mode of boundary-Layer transition. The planform parameter which strongly affects the capabilities of the keel to achieve laminar flow is lea ding-edge sweep angle. The two significant phenomena related to keel sweep angle which can cause premature transition of the laminar boundary layer are crossflow instability and turbulent contamination of the leading-edge attachment line. These flow phenomena and methods to control them are discussed in detail. The remaining factors that affect the maintainability of laminar flow include surface roughness, surface waviness, and freestream turbulence. Recommended limits for these factors are given to insure achievability of laminar flow on the keel. In addition, the application of a simple trailing-edge flap to improve the hydrodynamic characteristics of a foil at moderate-to-high leeway angles is studied.
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Keel Design for Low Viscous Drag
Paper presented at the SNAME 8th Chesapeake Sailing Yacht Symposium, Annapolis, Maryland, USA, March 1987.
Paper Number: SNAME-CSYS-1987-006
Published: March 07 1987
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Obara, Clifford J., and C. P. van Dam. "Keel Design for Low Viscous Drag." Paper presented at the SNAME 8th Chesapeake Sailing Yacht Symposium, Annapolis, Maryland, USA, March 1987. doi: https://doi.org/10.5957/CSYS-1987-006
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