Model tests are presented for a series of nine keels; three aspect ratios, three sweep angles; all at constant lateral area, taper ratio and thickness ratio. The series is shown to bracket current design trends.
These keels are all tested on the same canoe body, over a range of heel angles, lee-ways, and speeds. The results are presented in terms of full-scale sailing performance with due allowance for a reasonable ballast ratio and resulting vertical center of gravity for each keel. Optimum sweep angles for each aspect ratio are found.
A second series of three keels, geometrically similar but varying in lateral area, is provided. Predictions of windward performance demonstrate the effect of keel size. An optimum size is found for three wind strengths.
The results are for one hull form only. However, a method is suggested for estimating the effect of keel size and shape for any proposed design.