The increasing number of foiling yachts in offshore and inshore races has driven engineers and researchers to significantly improve the current modelling methods to face new design challenges such as flight analysis and control (Heppel, 2015). Following the publication of the AC75 Class Rules for the 36th America's Cup (RNZYS, 2018) and since the brand new Open 60 Class yachts are all equipped with hydrofoils, the presented study will propose a system-based modelling coupled with a simplified FSI (fluid-structure interaction) method that leads to better understand the dynamic behavior of monohulls with deformable hydrofoils.
The aim of the presented paper is to establish an innovative approach to assess appendage behavior in a dynamic VPP (velocity prediction program). For that purpose, dynamic computations are based on a 6DOF mathematical model derived from the general non-linear maneuvering equations (Horel, 2016). The force model is expressed as the superposition of 7 major force components expressed at the center of gravity of the yacht: gravity, hydrostatic, maneuvering, damping, propulsion (wind), control (rudders, daggerboard, foils …) and wave (Froude-Krylov and diffraction phenomenon).
As test cases, course keeping simulations are performed on an Open 60 yacht with control loops to simulate the wing trimmer, helmsman and foil trimmer when finding the optimal foil settings is needed. In first hand, IMOCA's polar diagrams are used as reference.
In calm water and in waves, the influence of foil's shapes (foil with shaft pointing downward and tip pointing upward, foil with shaft pointing upward and tip pointing downward) and stiffness (non-deformable, realistic, flexible) on the global behavior of the yacht is presented.